Exfoliating Soap is Full of Plastic. Seriously.

January 4, 2010

I feel ignorant.

I’ve been buying, using, and recommending Dove Exfoliating Soap as an affordable and low maintenance facial cleanser. Doctor-recommended. In general my skin has liked the stuff. But a friend recently made me aware of the fact that most of these mass-produced exfoliating soaps contain “microbeads” of plastic. These tiny globules of polyethylene act as a gentle abrasive that exfoliates dead skin, but the synthetic grit then washes down our drains and into our watersheds and oceans where it accumulates, gets eaten by sea creatures, and damages our ecosystems. Plastic beads, made from petroleum products, in my soap. Really?

Whether created by the mechanical pounding of waves upon larger pieces of plastic, or formed intentionally as exfoliating microbeads, these little bits of plastic add up. We’ve all seen plastic bottles and junk floating in ponds and rivers, but how much is there that we can’t see? One study found that up to 85% of plastic by weight in some estuaries is microscopic, invisible to the unaided eye, creating a hidden suspension of toxic materials. Many of the synthetic beads are so small that most sewage treatment systems allow them through. From a Slate.com article on the subject:

The thing about plastic exfoliating beads is that they don’t need to break down in order to end up in the stomachs of marine life from otters to octopi. “As this debris occupies the same size range as sand grains and planktonic organisms, it is available to a wide range of invertebrates near the base of the food chain,” says Mark Browne, a scientist at the Centre for Ecological Impacts of Coastal Cities at the University of Sydney who has studied the consequences of microscopic plastic in marine habitats.

… a range of bottom-of-the-food-chain critters—including mussels, barnacles, lugworms, and tiny crustaceans called amphipods—will ingest the particles, which may then remain in their digestive tracts or migrate to other body tissue. New research also suggests that polyethylene is an excellent transporter of phenanthrene, a byproduct of fossil fuel burning that’s a dangerous ocean pollutant.

Is all that plastic (and the many chemicals attached to it, read on) making its way up the food chain, as larger organisms like us devour smaller ones, potentially creating a process not unlike mercury toxicity in our seafood? I’m not qualified to say, except that this sounds plausible.

An environmentally-oriented blog in the Yahoo network has compiled a list of soaps to avoid. You will find, and rub your face with, plentiful polyethylene beads in these brands:

Aveeno Skin Brightening Daily Scrub
Clean & Clear’s line of scrubs
Dove Gentle Exfoliating Foaming Facial Cleanser
Neutrogena’s line of scrubs
Noxzema’s line of scrubs
Olay’s line of scrubs
Phisoderm Nurturing Facial Polish

Look for “polyethylene” in the label’s ingredient list. You can double-check on a site like drugstore.com, where it’s often easier to read the full ingredient list. You might also question terms like “microbeads” or “microcrystals” that aren’t explained.

I’m not an expert, but you can probably find suitable alternative soaps without polyethylene at places like Whole Foods and Trader Joe’s.  As a New Year’s resolution I picked up a bar which lists oatmeal as the sole exfoliant. Here are a few good name brands mentioned in the same Yahoo article, with their more natural exfoliating ingredients in parentheses:

Avalon Organics Exfoliating Enzyme Scrub (ground walnut & flax)
Burt’s Bees line of scrubs (ground peach stones, almond, & oats)
Freeman Feeling Beautiful Salt Body Scrub (salt)
Freeman Feeling Beautiful Sugar Body Scrub (sugar)
Nature’s Gate Revitalizing Facial Scrub (ground willow bark, walnut, & corn meal)
Queen Helene Natural Facial Scrub (ground walnut)
Skin Milk Facial Scrub, Exfoliate (oat flour & almond meal)
*St. Ives Apricot Scrub (ground apricot kernels)
And don’t forget the good, old-fashioned loofah sponge for exfoliating your skin.

*A lot of the blogs mentioned this name brand as a favorite, but I don’t know.

Plastics can take thousands of years to degrade, with some types persisting almost indefinitely. The scope of the problem is immense.  Try to live one day without encountering plastic. It is impossible. We’ve made such a mess of the world that the polyethylene exfoliating beads are just a recent example of our brash disregard. Ever heard of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch?  Discovered in 1997 by Captain Charles Moore, it is the size of Texas:

Captain Moore had wandered into a sump where nearly everything that blows into the water from half the Pacific Rim eventually ends up, spiraling slowly toward a widening horror of industrial excretion. For a week, Moore and his crew found themselves crossing a sea the size of a small continent, covered with floating refuse. It was not unlike an Arctic vessel pushing through chunks of brash ice, except what was bobbing around them was a fright of cups, bottle caps, tangles of fish netting and monofilament line, bits of polystyrene packaging, six-pack rings, spent balloons, filmy scraps of sandwich wrap, and limp plastic bags that defied counting.

Not limited to the Pacific, there are 6 other garbage patches in the oceans of the planet.  All this plastic clogs the digestive tracts of animals that mistake it for food. (Addendum – thanks to a heads up from a reader, you can view some horrific photos of dead albatrosses with stomachs filled by plastic junk, taken by photographer Chris Jordan).  It can also adsorb a lot of other toxic chemicals onto its surface. What health problems is it already causing in humans?  In one report:

…free-floating toxins from all kinds of sources—copy paper, automobile grease, coolant fluids, old fluorescent tubes, and infamous discharges by General Electric and Monsanto plants directly into streams and rivers—readily stick to the surfaces of free-floating plastic.

One study directly correlated ingested plastics with PCBs in the fat tissue of puffins. The astonishing part was the amount. Takada and his colleagues found that the plastic pellets eaten by the birds concentrated poisons to levels as high as 1 million times their normal occurrence in seawater.

We’ve got a lot of work to do, in addition to changing our exfoliating soaps.  Try to avoid buying anything with plastic packaging or that’s made of plastic and you’ll be reminded of how ubiquitous the stuff is. I hope the plastic I recycle actually gets recycled, but I digress.

Review the ingredients in the things you buy, and spend the extra dollar on those products that are made, packaged, and distributed in a responsible way when you can. Without exploding this idea to all that is wrong with our consumption, at least beware of the polyethylene microbeads in exfoliating soaps.

I doubt there will ever be such a discovery as The Great Ground Apricot Kernel Patch and Cornmeal Slick floating in the Pacific Ocean.

{ 17 comments }

Chrys January 4, 2010 at 3:18 am

Wow! Interesting to find out what some of these items contain.

Kendra January 4, 2010 at 7:54 am

I had no idea! Thanks for the heads up. I have used the St. Ives scrub for years, and it works very well for me. Also, for people who would like a cheaper and even more environmentally friendly option, oatmeal or cornmeal are great natural exfoliants. I’ve had keratosis pilaris on my arms since a child, and exfoliation is the only real thing that has helped! :)

Celeste January 4, 2010 at 10:02 am

I think the microbeads came out because of concerns that the apricot pit shards in St. Ives, etc., were too abrasive and maybe even damaging to sensitive skin.

I use a sugar scrub everywhere but my face; the sugar is too abrasive. Also, the sugar has to be suspended in oil to stay solid, and my face doesn’t do well with straight oil on it. I wonder if table sugar or baking soda paste would be a more comfortable abrasive for the face; I know that baking soda is used in toothpaste, so it cleans without destroying delicate enamel. Of course it’s a little more trouble to mix up your own, but those plastic beads in the food chain (which I NEVER considered) can’t be good.

I’m actually thinking now that one of those whirling face brushes or buzzing scrubbers with the disposable soaped abrasion pads might be the way to go. They’re still not as convenient, but it seems like a good compromise.

WarmSocks January 4, 2010 at 10:41 am

Healthfood stores often carry handmade soaps with no packaging at all – kinda pricey. Another option is to make your own. Fun, easy, and you know exactly what’s in it :)

rlbates January 4, 2010 at 11:25 am

Thanks for the information. Retin-A, AHA, and glycolic acids can also exfoliate the skin. I have used the St. Ives before and like it. Currently use MD Forte Facial wash.

robin andrea January 4, 2010 at 11:44 am

I just checked the list of ingredients in Trader Joe’s Oatmeal and Honey Pure Vegetable soap: sodium palmate; sodium palm kernelate; water; glycerin; essence of oatmeal; oatmeal flakes; honey; sodium chloride; pentasodium pentetate. A google search of the ingredients confirms that none are plastic, but the last one is not such a good thing (may cause eye irritation). I may have to try that St. Ives soap. It sounds like it will be good for my skin and for the environment.

dragonfly January 4, 2010 at 2:21 pm

That makes total sense re the plastic beads and environmental problem. Yet another reason in favour of St Ives or the oatmeal products.

emmy January 4, 2010 at 4:52 pm

I’ve used St. Ives since college and like it. It isn’t pricey, and may in fact be less pricey than other brands, but it comes sold in a plastic tube. Maybe I can offset this indiscretion by using re-usable bags when I shop. Trader Joe’s gives you prizes for re-using bags.

Wren January 4, 2010 at 8:28 pm

I really had no idea there was microscopic plastic beads in some soaps. I’m appalled. Really. I’ve made note of that list of offenders and will no longer use any of their products — and I’m going to tell them why, too.

All that plastic is, of course, bad for the Earth. But it’s also bad for US. I wonder how many of the cancers and autoimmune diseases (the latter of which I read recently are more widespread than they were 20 years ago) are triggered or caused by these plastics because, eventually, we consume them too.

Doc Gurley January 5, 2010 at 1:29 pm

Great article! I had no clue – and my teen daughters buy TONS of exfoliants. We’ll be checking labels (or making our own) from now on…

agnes January 5, 2010 at 8:04 pm

>>I’m actually thinking now that one of those whirling face brushes or buzzing scrubbers with the disposable soaped abrasion pads might be the way to go. They’re still not as convenient, but it seems like a good compromise.

They create even more waste!

drcharles January 5, 2010 at 9:05 pm

Thanks for the additional comments, they add more good info to a broad topic.

Shell January 6, 2010 at 12:21 am

I have to say I’m quite shocked that those exfoliants would contain plastic. I’m glad I don’t use any of them. Personally, I’ve been using St. Ives Apricot Scrub for years now and it’s great and affordable. My only issue with using organic, natural scrubs is that I could not use them before they expire so I only use them every now and again. I prefer the ones from Lush.

David Harmon January 11, 2010 at 7:27 pm

I use Lava soap in the shower. This might be too rough for some people (it’s a pumice soap, marketed for mechanics and the like), but I don’t have any problems with it, while I find many soaps (such as Ivory) too drying, and others (Dial, Lifebuoy, etc) leave me feeling like they left some sort of coating on my skin.

BLG January 26, 2010 at 3:12 pm

Wow! Imagine rubbing my face with plastic.

BLG January 28, 2010 at 10:17 pm

As an alternative (I don’t use soap on my face anyway, haven’t for years), a derma facial cloth works wonders. Obviously, it lasts longer than a bar of soap. The only problem with it is it does pick up lint and stuff and after a wash, I find myself picking out the lint and other things it picked up in the waster & dryer. Don’t know how to get around that but I figure if it’s picking up all that, it’s certainly picking up the stuff off all the stuff like dead cells off of my face/neck. It first came out in Europe. I bought a pack and that’s one of the best skin care items I have, hands down.

BLG January 28, 2010 at 10:18 pm

OY to the typos. :(

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